A few common fallacies

From a poster going around Tumblr.  Some of the examples have been edited a bit to suit myself.

A fallacy is any defect in reasoning which destroys an argument’s validity.

1) Ad Hominem. Latin term meaning “against the man.” It is discrediting the opponent instead of his or her argument.

For example: “You’re fat, therefore you cannot be correct.”

2) Faulty Cause and Effect. The belief that if event B occurs just after event A, then A causes B.

For example: “Whenever I wash my car, it rains the next day. Therefore, washing my car alters weather patterns.”

3) Either-Or. Suggesting that there are only two possibilities for any given situation, rather than more.

For example: “Either you lose weight, or you are self-destructive.”

4) Guilt By Association. “Attempting to discredit an idea, person, or believe by associating it with an undesirable person or group.

For example: “I can’t believe you are a Christian! Hitler was a Christian!”

5) Loaded Question. A loaded question is a question phrased so that it forces an answer based on a false or controversial premise.

For example: “Why do fats hate thin people so much?”

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